Pobuna Eureke - Eureka Rebellion

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Pobuna Eureke
Eureka stockade battle.jpg
Eureka Stockade nemir John Black Henderson (1854).
Datum3. prosinca 1854
Mjesto
ProizlazitiPobuna rudara poražena od viktorijanskih vlasti
Ratoborci

Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Kolonija Victoria

Stockade pobunjenici
Zapovjednici i vođe
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Robert Rede
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo J. W. Thomas
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Charles Pasley
Peter Lalor (WIA)
Henry Ross (WIA(Zarobljenik)
Snaga
276190
Žrtve i gubici
6 ubijenih22–60 ubijenih (procjenjuje se)[1]
12+ ranjenih
Zarobljeno 120+

The Pobuna Eureke dogodila se 1854. godine, potaknuti rudarima zlata u Ballarat, Victoria, Australija, koja se pobunila protiv kolonijalne vlasti Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo. Kulminiralo je u Bitka kod Eureke Stockade, koja se vodila između pobunjenika i kolonijalne snage Australije 3. prosinca 1854. u Eureka Olovo i nazvan po zatvor struktura koju su rudari izgradili uoči sukoba.[2] Pobuna je rezultirala najmanje 27 smrtnih slučajeva i mnogim ozljedama, a većina žrtava bili su pobunjenici.

Pobuna je bila vrhunac razdoblja građanski neposluh tijekom Viktorijanska zlatna groznica s rudarima koji prigovaraju na račun a rudarska dozvola, oporezivanje putem licence bez zastupanja i rad vlade, policije i vojske.[3][4] Lokalna pobuna izrasla je iz Ballarat Reformna liga kretanje i kulminiralo podizanjem sirovih bitki od strane pobunjenika i brzom i smrtonosnom opsadom kolonijalnih snaga.

Kada su zarobljeni pobunjenici bili suđeni u Melbourne, masovna javna podrška dovela je do njihovog puštanja i rezultirala uvođenjem Izborni zakon 1856, koji je naložio pravo glasa za muške koloniste u donji dom u viktorijanskom parlamentu. Ovo se smatra drugim ustanovljenim činom političke demokracije u Australiji.[3] Pobuna Eureke kontroverzno se poistovjećuje s rađanjem demokracije u Australiji i mnogi je tumače kao politički revolt.[5][6][7] Posvećeni muzej Eureka Center Ballarat ima za središnje mjesto zastava koju su rudari osmislili i zakleli joj se na vjernost prije bitke.

Mjesto

U 2015. godini izvješće koje je naručio Grad Ballarat otkrio da je najvjerojatnije mjesto skupova koji su doveli do pobune bio 29. put sv. Pavla, Bakery Hill.[8] S obzirom na dokumentarne dokaze i njihovu nadmorsku visinu, ovo je vjerojatno bilo mjesto na kojem su održani govori i Zastava Eureke je prvi put simbolično podignuta. Od 2018. godine to je područje parkiralište koje čeka stambeni razvoj.[9] Precizno mjesto samog Stockade ostaje nepoznato,[10] ali William Bramwell Withers opisao je njegovo mjesto 1870. godine: "Bilo je to područje od oko hektara, bezobrazno zatvoreno pločama i smješteno na mjestu gdje je Eureka Lead vodio zavoj uz staru cestu u Melbourneu, koja se danas zove Eureka ulica ... Mjesto ... ležalo je na pola puta između današnjih ulica Stawell i Queen na istoku i zapadu i blizu ulice Eureka na jugu. '[11]

Pozadina

Nakon odvajanja Viktorije od Novog Južnog Walesa 1. srpnja 1851., zlatotražiteljima je ponuđeno 200 gvineja za otkrića koja se plaćaju u krugu od 200 milja od Melbourne.[12] U kolovozu 1851. godine širom svijeta zaprimljena je vijest da je, povrh nekoliko ranijih nalaza, Thomas Hiscock, 3 kilometra zapadno od Buninyong (sada Svraka, oko 10 kilometara južno od Eureke), pronašli su još više naslaga.[13] To je dovelo do zauzimanja zlatne groznice, jer se stanovništvo kolonije povećalo sa 77.000 u 1851. na 198.496 u 1853. godini.[14] Među tim brojem bilo je "obilno škropljenje bivših osuđenika, kockara, lopova, lupeža i skitnica svih vrsta".[15] Lokalne vlasti ubrzo su se našle s manje policije i nedostaje im infrastruktura potrebna za poticanje širenja rudarske industrije. Broj javnih službenika, tvorničkih i poljoprivrednih radnika koji su odlazili na zlatna polja tražiti sreću stvorenu za kronični nedostatak radne snage koji je trebao biti riješen.

Prosvjedi na Goldfieldovima: 1851–1854

The Sastanak čudovišta iz Forest Creeka prosinca 1851. godine

La Trobe uvodi mjesečni porez na rudarstvo kako započinje pobuna Eureke

16. kolovoza 1851., samo nekoliko dana nakon Hiscockova sretnog štrajka, poručnik-guverner Latrobe izdao je dva proglasa, zadržavajući sva prava na zemljište kruna na poljima zlata i uvodeći porez na rudarstvo zakazan za 30 šilinga mjesečno, na snagu 1. rujna.[16] To bi rezultiralo uvođenjem univerzalnog poreza na rudarstvo temeljenog na vremenskom ograničenju, a ne na onome što se smatralo pravednijom opcijom, budući da se izvozna carina naplaćuje samo na pronađeno zlato, što znači da je uvijek dizajniran da život učini neprofitabilnim za većinu pronalazača.[17]

U godinama koje su prethodile oružanoj pobuni bilo je nekoliko masovnih javnih skupova i rudarskih delegata, s najranijim skupom održanim 26. kolovoza 1851. u Hiscock's Gullyu 26. kolovoza u Buninyongu, privukavši 40-0 rudara koji su protestirali zbog novih rudarskih propisa, i stavili proslijediti četiri rezolucije u tom smislu.[18] Rudari su se usprotivili vladinoj politici ugnjetavanja, uključujući naknadu za licencu, [18] Nakon ovog prvog sastanka uslijedilo je neslaganje u rudarskim naseljima kolonije.[potreban je citat] Čak se i u ovoj ranoj fazi govorilo o podjeli između aktivista "moralne sile" koji su se zalagali za zakonita, miroljubiva i demokratska sredstva i onih koji su zagovarali "fizičku silu", koji su kasnije trebali steći prevlast, a neki od nazočnih sugerirali su rudari ostvaruju svoje pravo na revoluciju i dižu oružje protiv guvernera koji je s nepoštovanjem smatran perjanicom, ženstvenom fopom.

Prvi povjerenik za zlato stiže u Ballarat

Sredinom rujna 1851. u Ballarat stiže prvi povjerenik za zlato kojeg je imenovao guverner Latrobe. Početkom prosinca bilo je nezadovoljstva kad je najavljeno da će se naknada za licencu povećati na 3 funte mjesečno, na snagu 1. siječnja 1852. U Ballaratu su se neki rudari toliko uznemirili da su počeli skupljati oružje.[19] 8. prosinca pobuna Eureke nastavila se s poreznim natpisom protiv rudarstva koji je javno izložen u Forrest Creeku. Veliki sastanak kopača održava se 15. prosinca 1851. godine na planini Aleksander, kako prema procjenama visokog kraja, 20 000 rudara pokazuje masovno iskazivanje potpore ukidanju sustava naknade za licencu. Dva dana kasnije, iz vladine je kuće objavljeno da je planirano 100-postotno povećanje poreza na rudarstvo preinačeno. Ipak, lov na ugnjetavajuće dozvole nastavljen je i učestao je uzrokujući opće neslaganje među kopačima. Uz to, Weston Bate primijetio je da su se iskopavanja Ballarata snažno protivila strogim zakonima o licenciranju alkoholnih pića koje je nametnula vlada.[potreban je citat]

Unatoč velikom prometu stanovništva na zlatnim poljima, nezadovoljstvo se nastavlja tinjati tijekom 1852. U kolovozu 1852. pronađena su prva nalazišta u Ballaratu na mjestu koje je trebalo postati zlatni greben Eureka.

Bendigo peticija i kampanja crvene vrpce

Izmjene Zakona o Goldfieldsu 1853. godine omogućile su da se pretraživanja dozvola mogu dogoditi u bilo kojem trenutku što je dodatno potaknulo kopače. U Bendigo 1853. godine, an Udruga za zaštitu zlata Anti-Gold je formirana i rudari su očito bili na rubu oružanog sukoba s vlastima. Tijekom 1853. godine uznemirenost na zlatnim poljima nastavlja se javnim sastancima održanim u Castlemaineu, Heathcoteu i Bendigu. U lipnju je udruga Anti-Gold License osnovana na sastanku u Bendigu gdje je prikupljeno 23.000 potpisa za masovnu peticiju, uključujući 8.000 iz rudarskog naselja u McIvoru. Peticija se 3. kolovoza stavlja pred guvernera LaTrobea. 13. kolovoza na skupu u View Pointu razvijena je "zastava kopača" Bendiga. Izviješteno je da su rudari paradirali pod zastavama nekoliko nacija, uključujući irsku trobojnicu, satiru Škotske, Union Jack, revolucionarne francuske i njemačke zastave te Zvijezde i pruge. Izaslanici koji su se vratili iz Melbournea obavijestili su procijenjenu gomilu između 10.000 i 12.000 ljudi o neuspjehu peticije Bendigo. Potom je 23. kolovoza slijedio veći skup na kojem je prisustvovalo 20.000 ljudi na Hospital Hillu, koji odlučuje podržati rudarsku carinu utvrđenu na 10 šilinga mjesečno. Nakon drugog okupljanja u multinacionalnom stilu na View Pointu 27. kolovoza, Pokret crvene vrpce širi se na viktorijanska zlatna polja. Od rudara je zatraženo da nose crvenu vrpcu kako bi demonstrirali svoje protivljenje i neplaćanje naknade za licencu.

Zakonodavno vijeće poziva na Istražno povjerenstvo

Od Zakonodavnog vijeća traži se da razmotri prijedlog LaTrobea za ukidanje naknade za licencu u zamjenu za naknadu za zlato i nominalnu naknadu za održavanje policijske službe, te podržava Istražno povjerenstvo za pritužbe na zlatna polja, jer guverner otkazuje rujan naplata poreza za rudarstvo. U studenom su zakonodavci odlučili da se naknada za licencu vrati na kliznu ljestvicu od 1 funte mjesečno, 2 funte tri mjeseca, 4 funte šest mjeseci i 8 funti 12 mjeseci. Utaja licence kažnjavala se povećanjem novčanih kazni od 5, 15 i 30 funti, a serijski počinitelji mogli bi biti osuđeni na kaznu zatvora. Inspekcije dozvola, koje su montirani službenici tretirali kao takav sjajan sport, koji su rudari znali pod upozorenjem "Zamke" ili "Joes", sada su se mogli odvijati u bilo koje vrijeme bez najave. Potonji sobriquet bio je referenca na guvernera čiji su proglasi objavljeni oko zlatnih polja potpisani i zapečaćeni "Walter Joseph Latrobe". Rudari su često hapšeni jer nisu nosili dozvole na svojoj osobi, jer su ih često ostavljali u svojim šatorima zbog često vlažnih i prljavih uvjeta u rudnicima.

Nemoć je najviše osjetio veći broj onih koji su smatrali da porez na rudarstvo nije održiv bez više značajnih otkrića. Sitni dužnosnici i dalje provode propise i provode lov na kopače kao sjajan sport i široko im se nepovjeruje, mnogi su bivši osuđenici s Tasmanije koji su bili skloni pribjegavanju brutalnim i nasilnim sredstvima.

U ožujku 1854. LaTrobe šalje paket reformi Zakonodavnom vijeću koji je usvojen i poslan u London na odobrenje britanskog parlamenta i sadrži shemu kojom se franšiza daje rudarima koji imaju dozvolu od 12 mjeseci.

Charles Hotham položio je prisegu kao guverner

Zamjenik La Trobea, Sir Charles Hotham, koji bi radije bio na službi u Krimskom ratu, preuzima dužnost u Victoriji, 22. lipnja 1854. U glavnom gradu, Njegova Ekselencija je zabrinuta kako se odvod radne snage na zlatna polja nastavlja sve više i više više tvorničkih i poljoprivrednih radnika napusti posao kako bi se okušalo u pronalaženju, a nalozi Roberta Redea da provede tjedni ciklus lova na dozvole uvođenjem strogog sustava provedbe, za koji se nadalo da će dovesti do egzodusa na zlatna polja obrnuto. U kolovozu 1854., guverner i lady Hotham dobro su primljeni u Ballaratu tijekom obilaska zlatnih polja u viktorijansko doba. U rujnu guverner Hotham nalaže češći lov na dozvole dva puta tjedno, a više od polovice kopača zlata i dalje nije u skladu s propisima.

Prema Carbonijevim sjećanjima na provođenje zakona u Ballaratu: "Do sredine rujna potraga za dozvolama odvijala se jednom mjesečno; najviše dva puta: možda jednom tjedno na Šljunčarima. Sada je lov na dozvole postao nalog Dva puta tjedno na svakoj liniji i što su se više kopači osjećali iznerviranima zbog toga, to su nas službenici kampa ustrajali u nagovaranju ... u listopadu i studenom, kada je vrijeme to dopuštalo, kamp je jahao iz lova svake zamjenice dan."[20]

Rudari Bendiga ponovno su odgovorili na povećanje učestalosti lova na dozvole dva puta tjedno prijetnjama oružanom pobunom.[21]

Ubojstvo Jamesa Scobieja i spaljivanje hotela Bentley

Spaljivanje Bentleyevog hotela u skici Charles Doudiet

Dana 7. listopada 1854. škotski rudar James Scobie ubijen je u Bentleyevom hotelu Eureka.[22] Deset dana kasnije, 17. listopada 1854., između 1.000 i 10.000 rudara okupilo se u hotelu prosvjedujući zbog oslobađajuće presude Jamesa Bentleyja, vlasnika hotela i glavnog osumnjičenika za Scobiejevo ubojstvo, od strane navodno korumpiranog suca.[23] Rudari su se pobunili, a Bentley i njegova supruga Catherine pobjegli su za života dok je hotel spaljivala bijesna svjetina. Mala skupina vojnika nije uspjela suzbiti pobunu.[23]

Dana 22. listopada 1854., katolici Ballarat sastali su se kako bi prosvjedovali zbog postupanja prema ocu Smythu. Sutradan su uhićenja rudara McIntyrea i Fletchera zbog požara u hotelu Eureka izazvala masovni skup koji je privukao 4000 rudara.[24] Sastanak je odlučio uspostaviti 'Društvo za prava kopača', radi zaštite njihovih prava.[25] 1. studenog 1854. godine 10.000 rudara ponovno se sastalo na Bakery Hill.[26] Obraćali su im se Thomas Kennedy, Henry Holyoake, George Black i Henry Ross.[27] Kopače je dodatno razljutilo uhićenje još sedam njihovih članova zbog požara u hotelu Eureka.[potreban je citat]

20. studenoga donesene su osuđujuće presude protiv Jamesa Bentleyja, Thomasa Farrella i Williama Hencea, koji su proglašeni krivima u vezi s slučajem ubojstva Jamesa Scobieja. Popalioci hotela Eureka Westerby, Fletcher i McIntyre osuđeni su i osuđeni na zatvorsku kaznu zbog paljenja hotela Eureka. Tjedan dana kasnije, izaslanstvo Ballarat-ove lige, uključujući Humffray, sastaje se s guvernerom Hothamom, državnim odvjetnikom Stawellom i kolonijalnim tajnikom Fosterom kako bi pregovarali o puštanju tri izgrednika u hotelu Eureka. Hotham je izjavio da će se zauzeti za riječ "zahtjev", vjerujući da je umjesto toga proveden pravni postupak. Otac Smyth u povjerenju obavještava povjerenika Redea da vjeruje da će rudari možda krenuti u marš na vladinu postaju.

Povećavanje nasilja dok je vojni konvoj pljačkao

U roku od 24 sata stiže još britanskih ogrtača jer 12. pukovnija stiže kako bi pojačala garnizon grada Ballarat. Dok se kreću pored mjesta na kojem je Eureka Stockade trebala biti podignuta, fizička sila koju je bubnjar John Egan i nekoliko drugih članova konvoja napala rulja koja je htjela opljačkati vagone. Tradicija je različito govorila da je Egan tada ili ubijen, ili da je bio prva žrtva borbi na dan bitke. Međutim, njegov grob na groblju Old Ballarat uklonjen je 2001. godine, kao rezultat istraživanja autorice Eureke Dorothy Wickham, koje izgleda da pokazuje da je Egan zapravo preživio i umro u Sydneyu 1860. godine.

Sastanci Ballarat Reform League

Ballarat Reform League nastojao je pregovarati s povjerenikom Robert Rede i Guverner Viktorije, Sir Charles Hotham (na slici)

U subotu, 11. studenoga 1854., okupilo se mnoštvo procijenjeno na više od 10 000 rudara Bakery Hill, točno nasuprot vladinog kampa. Na ovom sastanku stvorena je Ballarat Reform League, pod predsjedanjem Chartist John Basson Humffray. Nekoliko drugih čelnika Reformske lige, uključujući Kennedyja i Holyoakea, bilo je uključeno u čartistički pokret u Engleskoj. Mnogi su rudari ranije sudjelovali u čartističkom pokretu i društvenim previranjima u Britaniji, Irskoj i kontinentalnoj Europi tijekom 1840-ih.[potreban je citat]

Postavljajući svoje ciljeve, Ballarat Reform League[28] upotrijebio prvih pet načela britanskog čartističkog pokreta kako su utvrđena u Narodnoj povelji iz 1838.[29] Nisu usvojili niti agitirali za šesto načelo Chartista, tajna glasanja. Sastanak je donio rezoluciju "da je neotuđivo pravo svakog građanina da ima glas u donošenju zakona koje je pozvan poštivati, da je oporezivanje bez zastupanja tiranija". Sastanak je također odlučio da se odcijepi od Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva ako se situacija ne poboljša.[30]

Tijekom sljedećih tjedana Liga je nastojala pregovarati s povjerenikom Robert Rede i Guverner Viktorije, Sir Charles Hotham, o specifičnim pitanjima koja se odnose na Bentley i smrt Scobieja, muškarcima kojima se sudi za spaljivanje hotela Eureka, širim pitanjima ukidanja licence, biračkog prava i demokratske zastupljenosti polja zlata i raspuštanju Komisije za zlato . 16. studenoga 1854. guverner Hotham imenovao je Kraljevsko povjerenstvo za rješavanje problema i pritužbi rudara zlata. Geofffrey Blainey izjavio je da: "Bio je to možda najizdašniji ustupak koji je guverner ponudio glavnom protivniku u povijesti Australije do tada. Članovi komisije imenovani su prije Eureke ... bili su ljudi koji su vjerojatno biti suosjećajan s kopačima. " Međutim, povjerenik Rede, umjesto da čuje pritužbe rudara, povećao je policijsku prisutnost na zlatnim poljima i pozvao pojačanje iz Melbournea. Mnogi povjesničari (osobito Manning Clark) pripisuju tome njegovom vjerovanju u njegovo pravo na vršenje vlasti nad "buncanjem".[potreban je citat]

Sljedeći dan održava se sastanak "čudovišta" koji okuplja mnoštvo od oko 10 000 ljudi, dok oštećeni rudari od svojih zamjenika čuju vijesti o neuspješnom ishodu sastanka s guvernerom Hothamom. Dok se zastava Eureke prvi put vijori iznad platforme, istinski pobunjenici na čelu s Timothyjem Hayesom vičući "Jeste li spremni umrijeti" i Fredrick Vern, optužen za napuštanje četvero garnizona, spaljuju brojne dozvole za rudarstvo. dana kasnije čim je opasnost stigla, sa sumnjama da je mogao biti dvostruki agent. Lokalni duhovnik Theophilus Taylor zabilježio je svoje dojmove.

Danas je Ballaarat u velikom uzbuđenju zbog čudovišnog sastanka kopača, sazvanog u svrhu prosvjeda protiv dozvola za kopanje zlata i njihovih navodnih pritužbi. Na čelu sastanka pojavila su se dva katolička svećenika Oci Downing i Smith [Smyth]. Odlučeno je pružiti otpor vladi spaljivanjem licenci, što je učinjeno u značajnoj mjeri.[31]

Rede je odgovorio zapovjedivši policiji da 30. studenoga izvrši pretres dozvole. Uhićeno je osam neplatiša, a većina raspoloživih vojnih sredstava morala je biti pozvana kako bi se policajci za uhićenje izvukli iz bijesna rulja koji su se okupili.[32]

Izvještaj sveštenika Taylora identificirao je sve veću napetost.

Jutros je policija, kao i obično, tražila dozvole. Odupirali su im se i digli pobunu. Kao posljedica toga, vojnici i vojska su prozvani i stvari su poprimile velik ozbiljan aspekt. Nekolicina je zauzeta i na nekoliko sati uzbuđenje je popustilo. Poslijepodne se rulja okupila i do večeri se organizirala u bandu pobunjenika.[33]

Ovaj napad potaknuo je promjenu vodstva Reformske lige, ljudima koji su se zalagali za "fizičku silu", a ne za "moralnu silu" koju su zagovarali Humffray i staro vodstvo.[34]

Bitka kod Eureke Stockade

Britanski kolonijalne snage borbeni poredak

40. pukovnija stiže u Ballarat iz Melbournea.

Početkom prosinca policijskom kontingentu na Ballaratu pridružili su se i brojčano nadmašili vojnici iz Britanska vojska garnizona u Viktoriji, uključujući odrede iz 12. pješačka pukovnija (Istočni Suffolk) i 40. (2. Somersetshire) pukovnija stopala.[35] Snaga različitih jedinica u vladinom logoru bila je: 40. pukovnija (pješaštvo): 87 ljudi; 40. pukovnija (montirana): 30 ljudi; 12. pukovnija (pješaštvo): 65 ljudi; Konjena policija: 70 ljudi; Nožna policija: 24 muškarca.

Plan povjerenika Redea bio je poslati kombiniranu formaciju vojne policije od 276 ljudi pod zapovjedništvom kapetana John Thomas da napadne Eureka Stockade, kada je uočeno da se pobunjenički garnizon nalazi na niskom vodostaju, s potpunim iznenađenjem oko 3.30 ujutro. Britanski zapovjednik koristio se pozivima da koordinira svoje snage. 40. pukovnija trebala je osigurati pokrivanje vatre s jednog kraja, a montirana policija pokrivala je bokove. Neprijateljski kontakt započeo je na otprilike 150 metara, kad su se dvije kolone redovitog pješaštva i kontingent pješačke policije postavili na svoje mjesto.

Paravojna mobilizacija i zakletva na vjernost Južnom križu

Prisegajući na vjernost Južnom križu po Charles Doudiet (1854).

Budući da niti jedna od ostalih vodećih lampica u prosvjednom pokretu nije bila prisutna usred rastuće plima bijesa i nezadovoljstva među rudarima, vođa više militanata Peter Lalor, koji je na svom prvom javnom nastupu na sastanku 17. studenoga pomjerio da je središnji pobunjenik izvršna vlast biti formirana, [36] uzeo inicijavu i uzjahao panj naoružan puškom kako bi održao govor. Lalor bi proglasio "slobodu" i pozvao dobrovoljce da istupe i polože zakletve u čete i postave se kapetani.[37] Lalor se zakleo potvrdom svojih kolega demonstranata: "Kunemo se Južnim križem da ćemo istinski stajati jedni uz druge i boriti se za obranu svojih prava i sloboda."[38]

U depeši je poručnik-guverner Charles Hotham rekao: "Nezadovoljni rudari ... održali su sastanak na kojem je svečano posvećena australska zastava neovisnosti i zavjeti za njezinu obranu."[39]

Utvrđivanje zlatnog grebena Eureka

Karta koja prikazuje Eureka Stockade.

Nakon ceremonije polaganja zakletve pobunjenici su u dvostrukom dosjeu krenuli od brda Bakery do zlatnog grebena Eureka iza zastave Eureke koji je nosio pobunjeni kapetan Henry Ross, gdje se gradnja ograde odvijala između 30. studenog i 2. prosinca.[40][41] Sama dionica bila je nesretna stvar koju je Raffaello Carboni u svojim memoarima iz 1855. godine opisao kao "higgledy piggledy".[42] Podignut je oko postojećeg područja radnih mina,[43] sastojala se od dijagonalnih drvenih klasova izrađenih od materijala uključujući rekvizite za jame i preokrenuta konjska kola oko područja za koje se govorilo da je jedno jutro; međutim to je teško uskladiti s drugim procjenama koje imaju metričke dimenzije ograde oko 100 stopa x 200 stopa.[44]

Prema Laloru, ograda "nije bila ništa drugo do ograđeni prostor za održavanje vlastitih ljudi na okupu i nikad nije bila podignuta s ciljem vojne obrane."[45] Međutim, Peter FitzSimons tvrdi da je Lalor možda umanjio činjenicu da je Eureka Stockade možda zamišljena kao nešto kao utvrda, u vrijeme kada je to "bilo vrlo u njegovom interesu".[46] Građevinske radove nadgledao je Vern, koji je očito dobio instrukcije o vojnim metodama. Lynch je napisao da je njegovo "vojno učenje razumjelo čitav sustav ratovanja ... utvrđivanje je bila njegova jača strana". Les Blake primijetio je kako su drugi opisi ograde "prilično proturječili" Lalorovom sjećanju da je to bila jednostavna ograda nakon pada ograde.[47] Na suđenjima za veleizdaju pobunjenicima Eureke čulo se svjedočenje da je stalež mjestimično visok četiri do sedam metara i da se o njemu nije moglo pregovarati na konju, a da se nije smanjio.[48]

Strah poručnika Guvernera Hothama bio je da će se "mreža zečjih jama" na zlatnim poljima pokazati spremnom za obranu jer njegove snage "na grubom podrumu s rupama neće moći napredovati u redovitoj formaciji i lako će biti snajperske snage" , razmatranja koja su bila dio obrazloženja odluke da se krišom krene u položaj za ranojutarnji iznenadni napad.[49] Carboni detaljno opisuje raspoloženja pobunjenika: "Pastirske rupe u donjem dijelu ograde pretvorene su u jame za puške, a sada su ih zauzeli Kalifornijci iz brigade IC Rangers, njih dvadeset ili trideset, koji su držali bdjeti preko noći na "predstražama". "[50]

Međutim, položaj ograde opisan je kao "zastrašujući s obrambenog gledišta" smješten kao i na "blagoj padini, koja je znatan dio njegove unutrašnjosti izložila vatri s obližnjeg visokog terena."[51] Odred od 800 ljudi koji je uključivao "dva terenska komada i dvije haubice" pod zapovjednikom britanskih snaga u Australiji, general-bojnikom Sir Robertom Nickleom, koji je također vidio akciju tijekom irske pobune 1798., stići će nakon što je pobuna je spušteno.

Pobunjenici su poslali izviđače i uspostavili redove za pikete kako bi unaprijed upozorili na pokret Redea. Glasnici su poslani u druga rudarska naselja, uključujući Bendigo i Creswick, tražeći pojačanje za pobunu Bakery Hill.[52] 1. prosinca frakcija "moralne sile" koju je predvodio J. B. Humffray povukla se iz prosvjednog pokreta, dok su muškarci nasilja prešli u prevlast. Pobunjenici su nastavili učvršćivati ​​svoj položaj, jer 300-400 ljudi stiže iz Creswick's Creeka kako bi se pridružili borbi. Carboni se sjeća da su bili: "prljavi i odrpani i pokazali najveću gnjavažu. Jedan od njih, Michael Tuehy, ponašao se hrabro."[53]

Dolazak ovih pojačanja zahtijeva posredovanje strana koje traže hranu, ostavljajući za sobom garnizon od oko 200 ljudi. Teddy Shanahan, trgovac čija je trgovina na golf grebenu Eureka bila zahvaćena zalihama, podsjeća da su pobunjenici odmah postali vrlo kratki u hrani, piću i smještaju, te da je do 2. prosinca: "Lalor bio glavni, ali velik broj muškarci su neprestano izlazili iz Stockadea, a kako se većina napila, nikad se nisu vratili ... 500 ili 600 iz Creswicka nisu imali što pojesti, a i oni su te noći sišli na Glavnu cestu .. Lalor, vidjevši da nitko neće ostati ako se stvari nastave, naredio je pucanje u bilo kojeg čovjeka koji je otišao. "[54]

Tijekom 2. prosinca najveća pobunjenička snaga od oko 1.500 pobunjenika obučavala se u i oko pobunjeničkog logora. Oko 16 sati stigao je kontingent od 200 Amerikanaca pod vodstvom Jamesa McGilla. Stvoreni pod nazivom "Neovisna revolverska brigada kalifornijskih rendžera", imali su konje i bili su opremljeni oružjem i meksičkim noževima. Sudbonosnom odlukom, McGill je odlučio odvesti većinu svojih dvjestotinjak kalifornijskih Rangersa s ograde kako bi presreo glasine o britanskom pojačanju iz Melbournea. Te su se noći mnogi rudari vratili u svoje šatore nakon tradicionalnog subotnjeg kaririranja, uz pretpostavku da kraljičine vojne snage neće biti poslane u napad u nedjelju subotom. Mali kontingent rudara ostao je preko noći na ogradu, o čemu su špijuni izvijestili Redea. Uobičajene procjene veličine garnizona u vrijeme napada 3. prosinca kreću se od 120-150 ljudi.

Prema najboljim procjenama Lalora: "Bilo je oko 70 ljudi koji su posjedovali oružje, 30 s štukama i 30 s pištoljima, ali mnogi nisu imali više od jedne ili dvije municije. Njihova hladnoća i hrabrost bili su divljenja kad se uzme u obzir da su šanse bile 3 prema 1 protiv. " Lalorovo zapovjedništvo bilo je porozno, prožeto doušnicima, a povjerenik Rede bio je dobro informiran o svojim pokretima, posebno radom dvostrukih agenata Goodenougha i Andrewsa koji su bili ugrađeni u pobunjenički logor.

Uoči bitke otac Smyth izdao je molbu za katolike da sruše oružje i idući dan prisustvuju misi.

U početku znatno nadmašivši vladin tabor, Lalor je već osmislio strategiju u kojoj bi se, "ako nas vladine snage dođu napasti, trebali dočekati na Šljunčanim jamama, a ako smo primorani, trebali bismo se povući za visine do starog kanadskog Gullyja, i tamo ćemo iznijeti svoj konačni stav. "[55] Kad je tog dana izveden u bitku, Lalor je izjavio: "Povukli bismo se, ali tada je bilo prekasno."[56]

Pogreška u sirćetnom brdu: irski čimbenici dimenzije u sve manjem broju na zalihama

Izvadak od Argus izvještaj, 4. prosinca 1854.
Izvod iz izjave svjedoka Hugha Kinga, 7. prosinca 1854.
Preživjeli ostatak Zastava Eureke koju održava Umjetnička galerija Ballarat.

Argus novine od 4. prosinca 1854. izvijestile su da je Union Jack "morao" biti podignut ispod zastave Eureke na ogradu i da su obje zastave bile u posjedu pješke policije.[57] Neki su se pitali je li ovaj jedini istodobni izvještaj inače nesretnog Union Jacka poznat kao Eureka Jack biti prisutan točno je.[58] U prilog ovom alternativnom scenariju teoretiziralo se da je podizanje Union Jacka na logor možda bio odgovor 11. sata na podijeljenu odanost među heterogenim pobunjeničkim snagama koje su se topile.[59] U jednom trenutku bilo je prisutno 1.500 od 17.280 ljudi u Ballaratu, a samo 150 ih je sudjelovalo u bitci. Lalorov izbor lozinke za noć 2. prosinca - "Brdo octa"[60][61][62][63] - uzrokujući da podrška pobuni otpadne među onima koji su inače bili spremni pružiti otpor vojsci, jer se proširio glas da pitanje Irsko domaće pravilo bili uključeni. Jedan suvivor bitke izjavio je da se "slom uspona na Ballaratu može smatrati glavnim pripisom lozinci koju je Lalor dao noći prije napada." Upitan od jednog od svojih podređenih za "noćnu propusnicu", dao je "Vinegar Hill", mjesto a bitka za vrijeme irske pobune 1798. Pobuna Castle Hill iz 1804. godine, poznata i kao druga bitka kod octa Hill, bila je mjesto pobune osuđenika u koloniji Novi Južni Wales, u kojoj su sudjelovali uglavnom irski transporteri, od kojih su neki bili na Vinegar Hillu.[64] William Craig u svojim se memoarima podsjetio da su se "Mnogi u Ballaaratu, koji su prije toga bili raspoloženi da se odupru vojsci, sada tiho povukli iz pokreta." John Lynch podsjeća da je: "U subotu popodne imali smo silu od sedam stotina ljudi na koje smo mislili da se možemo osloniti." Međutim, tijekom noći uslijedila je lažna uzbuna da se vojska zaputila i na paradi "pada" postalo je očito da je došlo do značajnog dezerterstva. Bilo je rudara iz Bendiga, Forrest Creeka i Creswicka koji su marširali do Ballarata kako bi sudjelovali u oružanoj borbi. Rečeno je da je potonji kontingent brojao tisuću ljudi "ali kad su kružile vijesti da se irska neovisnost uvukla u pokret, gotovo su se svi okrenuli natrag". Peter FitzSimons ističe da, iako je broj pojačanja koja se približila Ballaratu vjerojatno bio bliži 500, nema sumnje da je kao rezultat izbora lozinke "Stockade uskraćen mnogim snažno naoružanim ljudima zbog osjećaja da su ga Irci preuzeli . "[65] Povjesničar, rođeni u Ballaratu, William Withers primjećuje da je: "Kaže se da je Lalor dao" Ocat Hill "za noćnu lozinku, ali ni on ni njegovi pristaše nisu očekivali da dolazi fatalna nedjeljna akcija, a neki od njegovih sljedbenika potaknuti zlokobnim predznakom lozinke, napušteno te noći ono što su vidjeli bilo je loše organizirano i ne baš puno nade. "[66]

Postoji još jedna teorija koju je iznio Gregory Blake, vojni povjesničar i autor knjige Eureka Stockade: Surova i krvava bitka, koji priznaje da su se na dan bitke mogle vijoriti dvije zastave, jer su rudari tvrdili da brane svoja britanska prava.

In a signed contemporneous affadavit dated 7 December 1854, Private Hugh King, who was at the battle serving with the 40th regiment, recalled that:

"...three or four hundred yards a heavy fire from the stockade was opened on the troops and me. When the fire was opened on us we received orders to fire. I saw some of the 40th wounded lying on the ground but I cannot say that it was before the fire on both sides. I think some of the men in the stockade should-they had a flag flying in the stockade; it was a white cross of five stars on a blue ground. – flag was afterwards taken from one of the prisoners like a union jack – we fired and advanced on the stockade, when we jumped over, we were ordered to take all we could prisoners..."[67]

The was a further report in Argus, 9 December 1854 edition, stating that Hugh King had given live testimony at the commital hearings for the Eureka rebels where he stated that the flag was found: "... rollen up in the breast of a[n] [unidentified] prisoner. He [King] advanced with the rest, firing as they advanced ... several shots were fired on them after they entered [the stockade]. He observed the prisoner [Hayes] brought down from a tent in custody."[68]

Blake leaves open the possibility that the flag being carried by the prisoner had been souvenired from the flag pole as the routed garrison was fleeing the stockade.[69]

It is certain that Irish-born people were strongly represented at the Eureka Stockade.[70] Historians have discovered that as well as the Irish comprising most of the rebels inside the stockade during the battle, the area where the defensive position was established was overwhelmingly populated by Irish miners. Profesor Geoffrey Blainey has advanced the view that the white cross of the Eureka flag is "really an Irish cross rather than being [a] configuration of the Southern Cross".[71]

Fall of the Eureka Stockade

Eureka Slaughter po Charles Doudiet (1854).
Map of the stockade and opposing forces.

According to Gregory Blake, the fighting in Ballarat on 3 December 1854 was not one sided and full of indiscriminate murder by the colonial forces. In his memoirs one of Lalor's captains John Lynch recalls "some sharp shooting," and for at least 10 minutes the rebels offered stiff resistance, with ranged fire coming from the Eureka Stockade garrison such that Thomas's best formation the 40th regiment wavered and had to be rallied. Blake says this is "stark evidence of the effectiveness of the defender's fire."[72]

Contradictory accounts as to which side fired first shot

Despite Lalor's insistence that his standing orders to all but the riflemen were to engage at a distance of fifteen feet and that "the military fired the first volley," it appears as if the first shots came from the Eureka Stockade garrison.[73]

It has been claimed that Harry de Longville who was on pickett duty when the early morning shootout started and fired the first shot that was possibly intended to be a warning that the colonial forces were approaching. John O'Neill serving with the 40th regiment later recalled: "The party had not advanced three hundred yards before we were seen by a rebel sentry, who fired, not at our party, but to warn his party in the Stockade. He was on Black Hill. Captain Thomas turned his head in the direction of the shot, and said "We are seen. Forward, and steady men! Don't fire; let the insurgents fire first. You must wait for the sound of the bugle."[74]

A magistrate by the name of Charles Hackett, who had apparently had the singular distinction of being well liked by the miners in Ballarat, who had accompanied Captain Thomas gave sworn testimony that: "No shots were fired by the military or the police previous to shots being fired from the stockade." Hackett had accompanied the colonial forces in the hopes of being able to read the riot act to the insurgents but in the event had no time before the commencement for hostilities.[75]

According to another account by an American rebel on the other side: "The Fortieth regiment was advancing, but had not as yet discharged a shot. We could now see plainly the officer and hear his orders, when one of our men, Captain Burnette, stepped a little in front, elevated his rifle, took aim and fired. The officer fell. Captain Wise was his name. This was the first shot in the Ballarat war. It was said by many that the soldiers fired the first shot, but that is not true, as is well known to many."[76]

Withers gives an account by one of Lalor's lieutenants who stated: "The first shot was fired from our party, and the military answered by a volley at 100 paces distance."[77]

Lynch in his memoirs would recall the course of the battle saying: "A shot from our encampment was taken for a declaration of war, and instantaneously answered by a fusilade of musketry ... The advance of the infantry was arrested for a moment; our left was being unprotected, the troopers seized the advantage, wheeled round, and took us in the rear. We were then placed between two fires, and further resistance was useless."

In the area where first contact with the enemy was made Carboni also recounts: "Here a lad was really courageous with his bugle. He took up boldly his stand to the left of the gully and in front: the red-coats 'fell in' in their ranks to the right of this lad. The wounded on the ground behind must have numbered a dozen."[78]

Eureka Stockade garrison routed

Theophilus Taylor's account is succinct. "A company of troopers & military carried the war into the enemies camp. In a very short time numbers were shot and hundreds taken prisoner".[79]

As the rebels ran short of ammunition Carboni recalls that it was the pike men under who stood their ground suffered the heaviest casualties, with Lalor ordering the musketeers to take refuge in the mine holes and saying "Pikemen, advance! Now for God's sake do your duty."

During the height of the battle, Lalor was shot in his left arm, took refuge under some timber and was smuggled out of the stockade and hidden. His arm was later amputated.[80]

Stories tell how women ran forward and threw themselves over the injured to prevent further indiscriminate killing. The Commission of Inquiry would later say that it was "a needless as well as a ruthless sacrifice of human life indiscriminate of innocent or guilty, and after all resistance had disappeared."[potreban je citat]Early in the battle "Captain" Henry Ross was shot dead.[potreban je citat] Kapetan Charles Pasley, the second in command of the British forces, sickened by the carnage, saved a group of prisoners from being bayoneted and threatened to shoot any police or soldiers who continued with the slaughter. Pasley's valuable assistance was acknowledged in despatches printed and laid before the Viktorijansko zakonodavno vijeće.[81]

Of those who had paid the ultimate price during the siege of the Eureka Stockade, the Geelong Advertiser reported that: "They all lay in a small space, with their faces upwards, looking like lead; several of them were still heaving, and at every rise of their breasts, the blood spouted out of their wounds, or just bubbled out and trickled away. One man, a stout-chested fine fellow ... had three contusions in the head, three strokes across the brow, a bayonet would in the throat ... and other wounds - I counted fifteen in that single carcase. Some were brining handerchiefs, others bed furniture and matting to cover up the faces of the dead. O God! sir, it was a sight for a Sabbath morn that, I humbly implore Heaven, may never be seen again. Poor women crying for absent husbands, and children frightened into quietness ... Some of the bodies might have been removed - I counted fifteen."

Martial law was declared throughout the camp on Monday, with no lights allowed in any tent after 8 o'clock pm.[82] It was around this time an outbreak of gunfire reportedly occurred within the camp. Unrelated first-hand accounts state that variously, a woman, her infant child and several men were killed or wounded in an episode of indiscriminate shooting.[83][84]

Eureka Flag seized by Constable John King

The Eureka Flag fragments donated by the King family to the Art Gallery of Ballarat.

During the battle, Constable John King volunteered to take the Eureka flag into police custody.[85] The report of Captain John Thomas dated 14 December 1854 mentioned: "the fact of the Flag belonging to the Insurgents (which had been nailed to the flagstaff) being captured by Constable King of the Force."[86] W. Bourke, a miner who lived about 250 yards from the Eureka Stockade, recalled that: "The police negotiated the wall of the Stockade on the south-west, and I then saw a policeman climb the flag pole. When up about 12 or 14 feet the pole broke, and he came down with a run." [87]

In his eyewitness account Carboni stated the Eureka Flag was then trailed in age old celebration of victory saying: "A wild 'hurrah!' burst out and 'the Southern Cross' was torn down, I should say, among their laughter, such as if it had been a prize from a May-pole...The red-coats were now ordered to 'fall in;' their bloody work was over, and were marched off, dragging with them the 'Southern Cross'."[88] The Geelong Advertiser reported that the flag "was carried by in triumph to the Camp, waved about in the air, then pitched from one to another, thrown down and trampled on."[89] The soldiers also danced around the flag on a pole that was "now a sadly tattered flag from which souvenir hunters had cut and torn pieces."[90] The morning after the battle "the policeman who captured the flag exhibited it to the curious and allowed such as so desired to tear off small portions of its ragged end to preserve as souvenirs."[91]

Estimates of the death toll

Of the soldiers and police, six were killed, including Captain Wise. According to Lalor's report, fourteen miners (mostly Irish) died inside the stockade and an additional eight died later from injuries they sustained. A further dozen were wounded but recovered. Three months after the Eureka Stockade, Peter Lalor wrote: "As the inhuman brutalities practised by the troops are so well known, it is unnecessary for me to repeat them. There were 34 digger casualties of which 22 died. The unusual proportion of the killed to the wounded, is owing to the butchery of the military and troopers after the surrender."[92] Carboni recalls the casualties being piled onto horse carts with the rebel dead destined for a mass grave. One hundred and fourteen diggers, some wounded, were marched off to the Government camp about two kilometres away, where they were kept in an overcrowded lock-up, before being moved to a more spacious barn on Monday morning.[potreban je citat] However the Exact numbers of deaths and injuries is difficult to determine as many miners "fled to the surrounding bush and it is likely a good many more died a lonely deate or suffered the agony of their wounds, hidden from the authorities for fear of repercussions." according to Eureka researcher and author Dr Dorothy Wickham. The official register of deaths in the Ballarat District Register shows 27 names associated with the stockade battle at Eureka.[93]

Reverend Taylor, in his account, estimated initially 100 deaths but reconsidered writing:

About 50 came at death by their folly. On the other side two soldiers killed and two officers wounded. The sight in the morning was truly appalling – Men lying dead slain by evil. The remedy is very lamentable but it appears it was necessary. It is hoped now rebellion will be checked.[79]

Povjesničar Clare Wright quotes one source, Thomas Pierson, who noted in the margin to his diary time has proved that near 60 have died of the diggers in all. According to Wright, Captain Thomas estimated that 30 diggers died on the spot and many more died of their wounds subsequently. Čak i Geelong Advertiser on 8 December 1854 stated that deaths were "more numerous than originally supposed".[1]

While it has been thought all the deaths at Eureka were men, research by historian Clare Wright details that at least one woman lost her life in the massacre. Wright's research details the important role of women on the goldfields and in the reform movement. Njena knjiga Forgotten Rebels of Eureka details how Charles Evans' diary describes a funeral for a woman who was mercilessly butchered by a mounted trooper while pleading for the life of her husband during the Eureka massacre. Her name and the fate and identity of her husband remain unknown.[94]

Posljedica

Povjesničar Geoffrey Blainey has commented, "Every government in the world would probably have counter-attacked in the face of the building of the stockade."[95] News of the battle spread quickly to Melbourne and other gold field regions, turning a perceived Government military victory in repressing a minor insurrection into a public relations disaster. Thousands of people in Melbourne turned out to condemn the authorities, in defiance of their mayor and some Legislative Councillors, who tried to rally support for the government.[96] In Ballarat, only one man responded to the call for special constables,[96] although in Melbourne 1500 were sworn in and armed with batons.[97] Many people voiced their support for the diggers' requested reforms.[98] In Melbourne and much of rural Victoria, and to a lesser extent the other Australian colonies, there was tremendous public outcry over the military actions.[potreban je citat] Newspapers characterised it as a brutal overuse of force[potreban je citat]in a situation brought about by the actions of government officials in the first place, and public condemnation became insurmountable.[potreban je citat]-->

Reverend Theophilus Taylor's observations were:

4 Dec. Quiet reigned through the day. Evening thrown into alarm by a volley of musketry fired by the sentries. The cause, it appears, was the firing into the camps by some one unknown......5 Dec. Martial Law proclaimed, Major-General Sir Robert Nickle arrived with a force of 1000 soldiers. The Reign of Terror commences.[79]

His note about a 'reign of terror' proved unjustified. Sir Robert Nickle was a wise, considered and even-handed military commander who calmed the tensions.[99] Miner and diarist Charles Evans recorded the effect of his conduct as follows:

Sir Robert Nichol [sic] has taken the reins of power at the Camp. Already there is a sensible and gratifying deference in its appearance. The old General went round unattended to several tents early this morning & made enquiries from the diggers relative to the cause of the outbreak. It is very probable from the humane & temperate course he is taking that he will establish himself in the goodwill of the people.[100]

On 7 December Theophilus Taylor met with Nickle and "found him to be a very affable and kind gentleman".[79]

Trials for sedition and high treason

Engraving published in Dob of some of the rebels on trial

The first trial relating to the rebellion was a charge of pobuna protiv Henry Seekamp od Ballarat Times. Seekamp was arrested in his newspaper office on 4 December 1854, for a series of articles that appeared in the Ballarat Times. Many of these articles were written by George Lang, the son of the prominent republican and Presbyterian Minister of Sydney, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang. He was tried and convicted of seditious libel by a Melbourne jury on 23 January 1855 and, after a series of appeals, sentenced to six months imprisonment on 23 March. He was released from prison on 28 June 1855, precisely three months early. While he was in jail, Henry Seekamp's de facto wife, Clara Seekamp took over the business, and became the first female editor of an Australian newspaper.

Of the approximately 120 'diggers' detained after the rebellion, thirteen were brought to trial. They were:[101]

  • Timothy Hayes, Predsjednik Ballarat Reform League, from Ireland
  • James McFie Campbell, a man of unknown African ancestry from Kingston, Jamajka
  • Raffaello Carboni, an Italian and trusted lieutenant who was in charge of the European diggers as he spoke a few European languages. Carboni self-published his account of the Eureka Stockade a year after the Stockade, the only comprehensive eyewitness account
  • Jacob Sorenson, a Jewish man from Scotland
  • John Manning, a Ballarat Times journalist, from Ireland
  • John Phelan, a friend and business partner of Peter Lalor, from Ireland
  • Thomas Dignum, born in Sydney
  • John Joseph, an African American from New York City or Baltimore, United States
  • James Beattie, from Ireland
  • William Molloy, from Ireland
  • Jan Vennick, from the Netherlands
  • Michael Tuohy, from Ireland
  • Henry Reid, from Ireland
Thousands of Melbourne residents celebrated the acquittal of the rebels, and paraded them through the streets upon their release from the Victorian Supreme Court.

The first trial started on 22 February 1855, with defendants being brought before the court on charges of high treason. Joseph was one of three Americans arrested at the stockade, with the United States Consul intervening for the release of the other two Americans. The prosecution was handled by Državni tužilac William Stawell representing the Crown[102] before Chief Justice William à Beckett. The jury deliberated for about half an hour before returning a verdict of "not guilty". "A sudden burst of applause arose in the court" reported Argus, but was instantly checked by court officers. The Chief Justice condemned this as an attempt to influence the jury, as it could be construed that a jury could be encouraged to deliver a verdict that would receive such applause; he sentenced two men (identified by the Crown Solicitor as having applauded) to a week in prison for contempt.[103] Over 10,000 people had come to hear the jury's verdict.[potreban je citat] John Joseph was carried around the streets of Melbourne in a chair in triumph, according to the Ballarat newspaper Zvijezda.[potreban je citat]

Under the auspices of Victorian Chief Justice Redmond Barry, all the other 13 accused men were rapidly acquitted to great public acclaim. The trials have on several occasions been called a farce.[104] Rede himself was quietly removed from the camps and reassigned to an insignificant position in rural Victoria.

Commission of Enquiry

When Hotham's Royal Commission report, initiated before the conflict, was finally handed down it was scathing in its assessment of all aspects of the administration of the gold fields, and particularly the Eureka Stockade affair. According to Blainey, "It was perhaps the most generous concession offered by a governor to a major opponent in the history of Australia up to that time. The members of the commission were appointed before Eureka...they were men who were likely to be sympathetic to the diggers."

The report made several major recommendations, one of which was to restrict Chinese immigration. Its recommendations were only put into effect after the Stockade. The gold licences were then abolished, and replaced by an annual miner's right and an export fee based on the value of the gold. Mining wardens replaced the gold commissioners, and police numbers were cut drastically. The Legislative Council was expanded to allow representation to the major goldfields. Peter Lalor and John Basson Humffray were elected for Ballarat, although there were property qualifications with regards to eligibility to vote in upper house elections in Victoria until the 1950s. After 12 months, all but one of the demands of the Ballarat Reform League had been granted. Lalor and Humffray both enjoyed distinguished careers as politicians, with Lalor later elected as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria.

Peter Lalor

Rebel leader Peter Lalor in later life as Speaker of the House in the Legislative Assembly of Victoria. Only his right arm is visible, as his left arm was amputated as a result of the battle at Eureka.

Following the battle, rebel leader, Irski australski Peter Lalor, wrote in a statement to the colonists of Victoria, "There are two things connected with the late outbreak (Eureka) which I deeply regret. The first is, that we shouldn't have been forced to take up arms at all; and the second is, that when we were compelled to take the field in our own defence, we were unable (through want of arms, ammunition and a little organisation) to inflict on the real authors of the outbreak the punishment they so richly deserved."[105]

Lalor stood for Ballaarat in the 1855 elections and was elected unopposed.

During a speech in the Legislative Council in 1856 he said, "I would ask these gentlemen what they mean by the term 'democracy'. Do they mean Chartism or Republicanism? If so, I never was, I am not now, nor do I ever intend to be a democrat. But if a democrat means opposition to a tyrannical press, a tyrannical people, or a tyrannical government, then I have been, I am still, and will ever remain a democrat."

Political legacy

The actual significance of Eureka upon Australia's politics is not decisive. It has been variously interpreted as a revolt of free men against imperial tyranny, of independent free enterprise against burdensome taxation, of labour against a privileged ruling class, or as an expression of republicanism. In his 1897 travel book Following the Equator, Američka spisateljica Mark Twain wrote of the Eureka Rebellion:[106]

... I think it may be called the finest thing in Australasian history. It was a revolution—small in size; but great politically; it was a strike for liberty, a struggle for principle, a stand against injustice and oppression. ... It is another instance of a victory won by a lost battle. It adds an honorable page to history; the people know it and are proud of it. They keep green the memory of the men who fell at the Eureka stockade, and Peter Lalor has his monument.

Raffaello Carboni, who was present at the Stockade, wrote that "amongst the foreigners ... there was no democratic feeling, but merely a spirit of resistance to the licence fee"; and he also disputes the accusations "that have branded the miners of Ballarat as disloyal to their QUEEN" (emphasis as in the original).[107] The affair continues to raise echoes in Australian politics to the present day, and from time to time one group or another calls for the existing Australian flag to be replaced by the Eureka Flag.[108][109]

Some historians believe that the prominence of the event in the public record has come about because Australian history does not include a major armed rebellion phase equivalent to the Francuska revolucija, Engleski građanski rat, ili Američki rat za neovisnost, making the Eureka story inflated well beyond its real significance. Others, however, maintain that Eureka was a seminal event and that it marked a major change in the course of Australian history.[110]

In 1980, historian Geoffrey Blainey drew attention to the fact that many miners were temporary migrants from Britain and the United States, who did not intend to settle permanently in Australia. He wrote:

Nowadays it is common to see the noble Eureka flag and the rebellion of 1854 as the symbol of Australian independence, of freedom from foreign domination; but many saw the rebellion in 1854 as an uprising by outsiders who were exploiting the country's resources and refusing to pay their fair share of taxes. So we make history do its handsprings.[111]

In 1999, the Premier of New South Wales, Bob Carr, dismissed the Eureka Stockade as a "protest without consequence".[112] Zamjenik premijera John Anderson made the Eureka flag a federal election campaign issue in 2004 saying "I think people have tried to make too much of the Eureka Stockade...trying to give it a credibility and standing that it probably doesn't enjoy."[113]

In 2004, the Premier of Victoria, Steve Bracks, delivered an opening address at the Eureka 150 Democracy Conference[114] stating "that Eureka was about the struggle for basic democratic rights. It was not about a riot – it was about rights."

Komemoracija

The Eureka Monument in Ballarat, erected in 1884

The materials used to build the stockade were rapidly removed to be used for the mines, and the entire area around the site was so extensively worked that the original landscape became unrecognisable, so identifying the exact location of the stockade is now virtually impossible.

A diggers' memorial was erected in the Ballarat Cemetery on 22 March 1856 near marked graves. Sculpted in stone from the Barrabool Hills by James Leggatt in Geelong it features a pillar bearing the names of the deceased miners and bearing the inscription "Sacred to the memory of those who fell on the memorable 3 December 1854, in resisting the unconstitutional proceedings of the Victorian Government."

A soldiers' memorial was erected many years later in 1876 and is an obelisk constructed of limestone sourced from Waurn Ponds with the words "Victoria" and "Duty" carved in its north and south faces respectively. In 1879 a cast-iron fence was added to the memorials and graves.

Over the next thirty years, press interest in the events that had taken place at the Eureka Stockade dwindled, but Eureka was kept alive at the campfires and in the pubs, and in memorial events in Ballarat. In addition, key figures such as Lalor and Humfray were still in the public eye.

Eureka had not been forgotten: it was readily remembered.[potreban je citat] Similar flags have been flown at rebellions since including a flag similar[potrebno pojašnjenje] to the Eureka flag which was flown above the Barcaldine strike camp in the 1891 Australian shearers' strike.[potreban je citat]

In 1889, Melbourne businessmen employed renowned American cyclorama umjetnik Thaddeus Welch, who teamed up with local artist Izett Watson to paint 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of canvas of the Eureka Stockade, wrapped around a wooden structure. When it opened in Melbourne, the exhibition was an instant hit. Dob reported in 1891 that "it afforded a very good opportunity for people to see what it might have been like at Eureka". Australazijanac wrote "that many persons familiar with the incidents depicted, were able to testify to the fidelity of the painted scene". The people of Melbourne flocked to the cyclorama, paid up and had their picture taken before it. It was eventually dismantled and disappeared from sight.

Memorials to soldiers and miners are located in the Ballaarat Old Cemetery[115] and the Eureka Stockade Memorial is located within the Eureka Stockade Gardens and is listed on the Australian National Heritage List.[116]

In 1954, the centenary of the event was officially celebrated; according to Geoffrey Blainey, who was in attendance, no one, apart from a small group of communists, was there.[117] Plays commemorating the events were held at major theatres.[potreban je citat]

150th anniversary official commemoration at the Eureka Centre, 3 December 2004

A purpose built Interpretation centre was erected in 1998 in suburb of Eureka near the site of the stockade. Designed to be a new landmark for Ballarat, the building featured an enormous ploviti emblazoned with the Eureka Flag.[118] Before its development there was considerable debate over whether a replica or reconstruction of wooden structures was appropriate, however it was eventually decided against and this is seen by many as a reason for the apparent failure of the centre to draw significant tourist numbers. Due primarily to falling visitor numbers the centre was redeveloped between 2009 and 2011.[119]

1992. god. Sovereign Hill commenced a commemorative son et lumière known as "Blood Under the Southern Cross"[120] which became a tourist drawcard and was revised and expanded from 2003.[121] In 2004, the 150th anniversary was celebrated. An Australian postage stamp featuring the Eureka Flag was released along with a set of commemorative coins. A ceremony in Ballarat known as the lantern walk was held at dawn. However, Prime Minister John Howard did not attend any commemorative events, and refused to allow the flag to fly over Parliament House.[122][123]

In November 2004 then Premijera Viktorije Steve Bracks announced that the Ballarat V/Line rail service would be renamed the Eureka Line to mark the 150th anniversary to take effect from late 2005 at the same time as a renaming of Spencer Street station to Južnjački križ,[124] however the proposal was criticised by community groups including the Public Transport Users Association.[125] Renaming of the line did not go ahead, however Spencer Street (railway) Station did become Southern Cross Station on 13 December 2005 with Bracks stating the name would resonate with Victorians because it "stands for democracy and freedom because it flew over the Eureka Stockade".[126]

The design of Melbourne's Eureka Tower references the Eureka Rebellion, with its use of blue glass and white stripes to symbolise both the Eureka Flag and a surveyor's measuring staff, and a crown of gold glass with a red stripe to represent the blood spilled on the goldfields.

Eureka Tower, completed in 2006 is named in honour of the event and features symbolic aspects in its design including an architectural red stripe representing the blood spilled during the battle.[127]

The site of the Eureka Stockade in Ballarat is currently being redeveloped with the support of grants from the City of Ballarat and the Victorian and Federal Governments. It will feature the new Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka (M.A.D.E) that will draw on the touchstone of Eureka and its newly restored flag, and put the Eureka Stockade into the context of 260 years of democracy.

M.A.D.E.'s highly interactive exhibition, based on the premise of People + Power = Democracy, is expected to open in early 2013, followed by a national rollout of public onsite and online programs.

Deputy Premier, the Hon. Peter Ryan, told the Legislative Assembly, sitting in Ballarat in 2012, that M.A.D.E. would be "a magnificent tribute to the events" of the Eureka Stockade.

The Museum's M.A.D.E. You Look booklet says M.A.D.E will be 'an online platform and immersive museum with a refreshing approach to culture, civics, history and citizenship. M.A.D.E puts the past into a contemporary context, celebrates Australia's achievements and inspires new ways of thinking about issues like equality, freedom of speech, parliamentary representation and the rule of law'. The museum 'will ignite debate about what it means to be an effective Australian in the 21st Century'.

Popularna kultura

Književnost

  • The Eureka Stockade is referenced in several poems by Henry Lawson including "Flag of the Southern Cross" (1887), "Eureka (A Fragment)" (1889), "The Fight at Eureka Stockade" (1890), and "Freedom on the Wallaby" (1891).
  • The original version of Marcus Clarke's classic novel, His Natural Life, serialised in the Australian Journal between 1870 and 1872, includes a fictionalised account of the Eureka rebellion.[128]

Film i televizija

Australski glumac Chips Rafferty portrays Peter Lalor in the 1949 film Eureka Stockade.

Eureka Stockade (1907), directed by Arthur and George Cornwell and produced by the Australasian Cinematograph Company, was the second feature film made in Australia (the first being the 1906 production, The Story of the Kelly Gang). The film was first screened on 19 October 1907 at the Melbourne Athenaeum. The film impressed critics of the time and was found to be a stirring portrayal of the events surrounding the Eureka Stockade, but failed to connect with audiences during the two weeks it was screened. The surviving seven-minute fragment (stored at the Nacionalna arhiva za film i zvuk) shows street scenes of Ballarat. Other scenes in the lost reels of the film were believed to have included gold seekers leaving London, issuing of licences, licence hunting, diggers chained to logs and rescued by mates, diggers burning Bentley's Hotel, the Rebellion, building the stockade, troops storming the stockade and the stockade in ruins.[129]

The Loyal Rebel, također poznat kao Eureka Stockade, is an Australian silent film made in 1915. Directed by Alfred Rolfe, it starred Maisie Carte, Wynn Davies, Reynolds Denniston, Charles Villiers, Percy Walshe, Jena Williams, and Leslie Victor as Peter Lalor.[130] Smatra se a izgubljeni film.

A 1949 British film, titled Eureka Stockade (objavljeno u Sjedinjenim Državama kao Massacre Hill), was shot in Australia. Film je glumio Chips Rafferty as Peter Lalor, and Peter Illing as Raffaello Carboni. Režirao ga je Harry Watt, proizvodi Leslie Norman a napisao Walter Greenwood, Ralph Smart i Harry Watt.[131]

Zatvor, a 1971 Australian musical film featuring Rod Mullinar as Peter Lalor, was directed by Hans Pomeranz and Ross McGregor. The film was written by Kenneth Cook, adapted from his musical play.

Eureka Stockade was a two-part television mini-series which aired on the Seven Network in 1984.[132] glumi Bryan Brown as Peter Lalor. Directed by Rod Hardy, produced by Henry Crawford and written by Tom Hegarty.[133] Glumačka postava uključena Carol Burns, Bill Hunter i Brett Cullen.

Riot or Revolution: Eureka Stockade 1854, an Australian documentary from 2006, directed by Don Parham. The film focuses mainly on Governor Sir Charles Hotham (played by Brian Lipson), Raffaello Carboni (Barry Kay), and Douglas Huyghue (Tim Robertson). The accounts of these eyewitnesses are the main source for the monologues directly aimed at the audience, and, as the caption at the start of the film says: "the lines spoken by actors in this film are the documented words of the historical characters."The cast also included Julia Zemiro as Celeste de Chabrillan and Andrew Larkins as Peter Lalor.It was filmed in Ballarat and Toorac House u Melbourne.[134][135]

Scena

Zatvor, a musical play by Kenneth Cook and Patricia Cook, was first performed at Sydney's Independent Theatre in 1971. It was the basis for the film Zatvor.

Carboni is a dramatisation by John Romeril of Raffaello Carboni's eyewitness account of the Eureka Rebellion. It was first performed in 1980 by the Australian Performing Group na Pram Factory in Melbourne, with Bruce Spence u naslovnoj ulozi.[136][137]

Eureka Stockade, a three-act opera with music by Roberto Hazon and a libretto by John Picton-Warlow and Carlo Stransky, was completed in 1988.[138]

The musical Eureka premiered in Melbourne in 2004 at Kazalište Njezinog Veličanstva. With music by Michael Maurice Harvey, book and lyrics by Gale Edwards and John Senczuk and original book and lyrics by Maggie May Gordon, Eureka bio nominiran za Helpmann Award for Best Musical 2005. godine.

Vidi također

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  81. ^ Ovaj članak uključuje tekst iz publikacije koja je sada objavljena u javna domenaVetch, Robert Hamilton (1895). "Pasley, Charles (1824. - 1890.)". U Lee, Sidney (ur.). Rječnik nacionalne biografije. 43. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
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  83. ^ "... neki koji ne razumiju maršalov (sic) zakon nisu ugasili svoja svjetla i vojnici su pucali u šatore i ubili dva muškarca i jednu ženu, a druge ranili, iako smo bili udaljeni pola milje i čuli smo kako kuglice zvižde nad našim šatori. " Pierson, Thomas. "Dnevnici, 1852, rujan 30-1864, 12. travnja [stranica 248]". Državna knjižnica Victoria. Neobjavljeni rukopis. Preuzeto 12. kolovoza 2020.
  84. ^ "Među žrtvama sinoćnje neoprostive nepromišljenosti bile su žena i njezino dojenče. Ista lopta koja je ubila majku, (...) prošla je kroz dijete dok je ležalo spavajući u njenom naručju. (...) Još je jedna patnica vrlo ugledni skladištar, kojem je lopta razbijena natkoljenicom dok je hodao prema općini. " Evans, Charles. "Dnevnik Charlesa Evansa, 1853. 24. rujna -1855. 21. siječnja. [Stranica 142]". Državna knjižnica Victoria. Neobjavljeni rukopis. Preuzeto 12. kolovoza 2020.
  85. ^ FitzSimons, Peter (2012). Eureka: Nedovršena revolucija. Sydney: Random House Australia. str. 477. ISBN 978-1-74-275525-0.
  86. ^ John Wellesley Thomas (14. prosinca 1854.). Izvještaj kapetana Thomasa - zastava zarobljena (Izvješće). Ured kolonijalnog tajnika. Preuzeto 10. prosinca 2020 - putem Ured za javne evidencije Victoria.
  87. ^ Corfield, Justin; Gervasoni, Clare; Wickham, Dorothy, ur. (2004.). "Bourke, W". Enciklopedija Eureka. Ballarat: Ballarat Heritage Services. str. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-87-647861-2.
  88. ^ Carboni, Raffaello (1980). Eureka Stockade: Posljedica nekih pirata koji žele pobunu u Quarterdecku. Blackburn: Currey O'Neil. str. 98. ISBN 978-0-85-550334-5.
  89. ^ Withers, William (1999). Povijest Ballarata i neka sjećanja na Ballarat. Ballarat: Služba za baštinu Ballarat. str. 82. ISBN 978-1-87-647878-0.
  90. ^ Blake, Les (1979). Peter Lalor: Čovjek s Eureke. Belmont, Victoria: Neptune Press. str. 88. ISBN 978-0-90-913140-1.
  91. ^ PONOVNO. Johns Papers, MS10075, Zbirka rukopisa, knjižnica La Trobe, Državna knjižnica Victoria.
  92. ^ Joseph Toscano, Ubojita vremena Arhivirano 27. listopada 2011 Povratni stroj Povrativši radikalni duh pobune Eureke 1854. godine, (2004.) Pristupljeno 20. listopada 2008.
  93. ^ Dorothy Wickham, Smrti na Eureki Arhivirano 24. siječnja 2014 Povratni stroj izvadak iz njezine knjige "Smrti na Eureki", 64pp, 1996 ISBN 0-646-30283-3
  94. ^ Wright, Clare, Zaboravljeni pobunjenici Eureke (2013) Objavljivanje teksta, Melbourne ISBN 9781922147370, str. 429
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  97. ^ Mary Proctor: Osuđenik, pionir i naseljenik Jeff Atkinson
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  121. ^ Obnova nadogradnje Eureka priče. Arhivirano 9. lipnja 2012. u Povratni stroj Kurir 5. lipnja 2003
  122. ^ Gerard Henderson. Eureka: Kratki rat koji dugo traje u povijesti Arhivirano 6. studenog 2012. u Povratni stroj Doba, 30. studenoga 2004
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  128. ^ Vidi Marcusa Clarkea, Njegov prirodni život, Knjiga VI, poglavlja 9 do 17.
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  130. ^ Odani buntovnik na IMDb-u Arhivirano 17. travnja 2015. u Povratni stroj Pristupljeno 09. travnja 2013
  131. ^ "Eureka Stockade (1949.)". IMDb. Arhivirano od izvornika 12. kolovoza 2012. Preuzeto 25. svibnja 2009.
  132. ^ "Eureka Stockade Pt 01". Nacionalna arhiva za film i zvuk. Arhivirano iz Izvorna dana 6. studenog 2018. Preuzeto 25. svibnja 2009.
  133. ^ "Eureka Stockade (1984.)". IMDb. Arhivirano od izvornika 27. rujna 2009. Preuzeto 25. svibnja 2009.
  134. ^ Neredi ili revolucija: Eureka Stockade 1854 na IMDb-u Arhivirano 6. travnja 2015. u Povratni stroj Pristupljeno 9. travnja 2013
  135. ^ Neredi ili revolucija: Eureka Stockade 1854 glumačka postava i note Arhivirano 6. rujna 2014. u Povratni stroj na IMDb-u Pristupljeno 9. travnja 2013
  136. ^ "AusStage". Arhivirano od izvornika 3. ožujka 2016. Preuzeto 19. lipnja 2016.
  137. ^ "KAZALIŠTE, hvala kazališnom trustu, na 'Carboniju'". The Canberra Times. 21. ožujka 1980. str. 12. Preuzeto 21. veljače 2016 - putem Nacionalne knjižnice Australije.
  138. ^ Hazon, Roberto; Stranski, Karlo; Picton-Warlow, John (14. kolovoza 1988.). "Eureka dionica: opera u tri čina". Sydney: Pellinor. Preuzeto 14. kolovoza 2017 - putem Trovea.

Daljnje čitanje

vanjske poveznice

  1. ^ a b c d e "Ballarat Heritage Services-knjižara" Arhivirano 19. veljače 2011. u Povratni stroj Ballarat Heritage Services
  2. ^ Withers, William (1999). Povijest Ballarata i neka sjećanja na Ballarat. Ballarat: Služba za baštinu Ballarat. str. 239. ISBN 978-1-87-647878-0.

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